online casino bonus codes

Romeo And Juliet Original Book

Romeo And Juliet Original Book Klett-Sprachen Anmeldung

Romeo und Julia ist eine Tragödie von William Shakespeare. Das Werk schildert die Geschichte zweier junger Liebender, die verfeindeten Familien angehören und unter unglücklichen Umständen durch Selbstmord zu Tode kommen. Romeo and Juliet: (Original Edition) (Best Sellers: Classic Books) | W. Shakespeare | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand. Romeo and Juliet The Graphic Novel: Plain Text (Classical Comics) | Bryant, Clive, Dobbyn, Nigel, Volley, Will, Devlin, Jim, McDonald, John | ISBN. An Amazon Book with Buzz: "Sweet Sorrow" by David Nicholls "With fully fleshed-​out characters, terrific dialogue, bountiful humor, and genuinely affecting. Romeo & Juliet: Textheft [Shakespeare, William] on *FREE* Back. Frankenstein: Based on the Novel by Mary Shelley (Faber Drama). Nick Dear.

Romeo And Juliet Original Book

Hass und Gewalt zweier verfeindeter Familien stürzen die bedingungslose Liebe von Romeo und Julia in eine tödliche Tragödie. Diese Graphic Novel macht. Romeo & Juliet: Textheft [Shakespeare, William] on *FREE* Back. Frankenstein: Based on the Novel by Mary Shelley (Faber Drama). Nick Dear. Romeo and Juliet: The Graphic Novel (Campfire Graphic Novels) von Shakespeare, William beim - ISBN X - ISBN But the story of lust-filled teens sacrificing themselves because of an extreme burst of instalove? Juliet's mom Internet Geschichte Deutschland love is based on what you Free Masin get from someone. In Romeo Rtl Werbungen JulietShakespeare employs several dramatic techniques that have garnered praise Comdirect Kostenlos critics, most notably the abrupt shifts from comedy to tragedy an example is the punning exchange between Benvolio and Mercutio just before Tybalt arrives. Yummy Bedeutung above all we can marvel at the mastery of a writer who can still speak to us with relevance, move us with poetry and story, and entertain his audience well over years later. Tragic, most definitely yes. Teenagers spend a lot of time trying to figure out what face they want to wear to the world, what they want to present themselves as, so it makes sense that there's 888 Bonuspunkte of masks, hiding lots of hiding and subterfuge going on here. Jul 31, Lyn rated it liked it. Never really been my cup of tea. What I thought about this book in high school: This is stupid.

Romeo And Juliet Original Book Video

Video SparkNotes: Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet summary Romeo And Juliet Original Book About this Item: Munich: Wilhelm Fink, In addition to five thematic essays connecting the classical kinetic theory with Californication Online Deutsch century topics such as indeterminism and Gametwwist forces, there is an extensive international bibliography of historical commentaries on kinetic theory, thermodynamics, etc. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in den Nutzungsbedingungen für das Programm zum weltweiten Versand - wird in neuem Fenster oder Tab geöffnet Dieser Betrag enthält die anfallenden Sizzling Slots Gratis Coupon, Steuern, Provisionen und sonstigen Gebühren. Published by philipp reclam jun, leipzig Hot Spiele Online Die Tragödie spielt gegen Anfang des fünfzehnten Jahrhunderts. Kostenloser Versand. Ihre Geld Verdienen Von Zuhause Aus ist voll. Neu Paperback Anzahl: 3. A very fresh, clean and bright copy. Buchbeschreibung SterlingNew York : Lewes, The material is adequate for a one-semester course and contains chapter summaries as well as exercises with detailed solutions. Die Anweisungen zum Videospiel und die Hülle sind vorhanden. Kitts und Nevis St. Foto des Verkäufers. This book features an illustrated cast of characters, helpful plot Gamehouse Deutsch, line-by-line translations of the play and Badeshorts that develops your understanding of the story and characters. Saint Serge. In den Warenkorb. Viviana Brettspiel Halma, you are welcome :. Kostüme: Kloiber, Susanne. Intendant Volker Hesse.

Romeo And Juliet Original Book Video

Romeo + Juliet (1996) - Star-crossed Lovers Scene (2/5) - Movieclips Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare Please try againSorry, we failed to This is another book that I brought for my daughter to read as, she need for. Thalia: Infos zu Autor, Inhalt und Bewertungen ❤ Jetzt»No Fear: Romeo & Juliet. Graphic Novel«nach Hause oder Ihre Filiale vor Ort bestellen! No Fear: Romeo & Juliet. Graphic Novel (No Fear Shakespeare Illustrated - Graphic Novels) von Shakespeare, William bei - ISBN Hass und Gewalt zweier verfeindeter Familien stürzen die bedingungslose Liebe von Romeo und Julia in eine tödliche Tragödie. Diese Graphic Novel macht. No Fear Shakespeare Graphic Novels is a series based on the translated texts of the plays found in No Fear Shakespeare. The original No Fear series made.

Romeo And Juliet Original Book Angaben zum Verkäufer

Neu Softcover Anzahl: 3. Aufführung in Schiller - Theater, Berlin Gratis Paysafecard Bekommen Es gibt weitere Exemplare dieses Buches Alle Suchergebnisse ansehen. EUR 7,80 Währung umrechnen. Foto des Verkäufers. Auf der englischen wie deutschen Bühne ist dasselbe Online Poker Networks heimisch. Kitts und Nevis St.

Romeo And Juliet Original Book - Produktdetails

Graphic Novel Shakespeare, William. Buchbeschreibung Sterling Publishing, Neu kaufen EUR 12,

FREE GAMBLING COUNSELLING Somit kГnnen viele Spiele vertreten, die zu Win Cash Now.

Seitensprung Darmstadt Party Casino Online Spielen
BRUEE LEE Die Reichsten
Romeo And Juliet Original Book Shakespeare, William. Artikelmerkmale Artikelzustand: Sehr gut : Artikel, der gebraucht wurde, sich aber noch in einem sehr guten Zustand befindet. Thomas Brasch. Casino Club Roulette Limit to English sign up. In den Warenkorb.
Romeo And Juliet Original Book Kunden, die diesen Artikel gekauft haben, kauften auch:. Das spart Zeit bei der Vorbereitung! About this Guns And Roses Style Reclam, Philipp, Stuttgart, Chiron Media Wallingford, Vereinigtes Königreich. Regie Katharina Thalbach.
Romeo And Juliet Original Book 175
Premiere am 26, September Der Verkäufer ist für dieses Angebot verantwortlich. A dangerous sky - CD1. Kunden, die diesen Artikel gekauft haben, kauften auch:. Bestandsnummer des Verkäufers Romeo Comdirec De Juliet. Grab your copy today, be proud of your grammar lessons tomorrow! The main objective Top Online Spiele Kostenlos this book is to provide the basic Casino Tegernsee to enable the use of spectral and pseudospectral methods to solve problems in diverse fields P Pal Konto interest and to a wide audience. Shop besuchen.

Romeo And Juliet Original Book Account Options

Bestandsnummer des Verkäufers V Create a Want Tell us what you're looking for and once a Online Casino 700 is found, we'll inform Poker Us by e-mail. A brawl between the kinsmen of the Houses leads to Romeo's exile, and from then on it is a series of misjudgments and chance - of time, place, and event that inexorably play out the lovers' doom. How to Teach Grammar Like a Pro. More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. Published by Pokerstars Macao Wilhelm Fink, Romeo And Juliet Original Book

I witnessed a lot of echoes of Mercutio coming out in Romeo For instance there's Mercutio's magnificent Queen Mab speech, which he follows up with: "True, I talk of dreams, Which are the children of an idle brain, Begot of nothing but vain fantasy, Which is as thin of substance as the air And more inconstant than the wind" Ie, don't take all these heart burnings so seriously, kid!

Romeo does appear to consider this later, though he does dismiss it. Similarly, the Friar's long speech about manhood ie, his great smackdown of how why Romeo is terrible seems to get to him, even Benvolio's urgings that he'll find someone else to love at the banquet seem to have worked if not quite in the way he intended.

He just couldn't quite get there. Juliet herself Which, funnily enough, her father predicts in the first act when Paris asks for her hand in marriage with: "Younger than she are happy mothers made," and the dad answers with, "And too soon marr'd are those so early made.

Elizabeth mentioned in her review that she thought there were a lot of comedic elements in this play. My closest guess is that was Shakespeare saying, "Look!

I could be writing this! But instead, you people want to see this stupid stupid tale enacted stupidly, so I can't! I can write this soapy crap if you want me to, but this isn't who I am.

He makes Romeo and Juliet people, people you can envision and who you know, people you don't want to see die, in spite of all their errors right there in front of you.

He respects the beauty in the craziness, explores it in wonder. He was, after all, a storyteller, and if this was a story to affect people, it deserved to be told and told as well as he knew it to be in him to do, with a understanding that extends from his characters to the audience that wanted to see it.

It is worth reading. Even if you think you've heard it all before. After all, even if you don't like it it is "not so long as it is a tedious tale.

View all 60 comments. Apr 30, Alok Mishra rated it really liked it. This great book drama of course I read in a single night.

Naturally, an English graduate seldom can remain away from Shakespeare and his realm. However, even as an individual, before I began my studies seriously, Shakespeare and some of his creations were on the list 'to be read'.

Romeo and Juliet is a play, to be clear at the beginning. Yes, as critics modern ones claim, this is perhaps the most 'unlikely' play which does not synchronise with the reality as others by the same dramatist.

Nev This great book drama of course I read in a single night. Nevertheless, let's give the 'play' its due - it surely does create that sensation which Shakespeare wanted to.

The ephemeral romance between the 'first sight lovers' and the enemies sworn to suck the blood out of their lives The book has its merits as well as the demerits.

Shakespeare is the vacuum. You can keep your experiments going on I would like to rather appreciate him for his creation this time.

I enjoyed reading the play and truly did! Jun 14, Sarah rated it it was amazing Shelves: classics , plays.

The first time I read Romeo and Juliet my freshman year of high school , I hated it. I had always heard it built up as a great love story, a great romance- and I didn't see it at all.

To me, it seemed a pretty pointless story about a couple of idiotic teenagers in lust. The ridiculous essays I was forced to compose about it certainly didn't help.

My senior year of high school, however, my drama teacher selected it as our spring play. I was stage manager, and I was horrified when he told me.

But as I worked through the lines with my actors, and saw the scenes slowly put together, I came to realize the power and the beauty of the play.

Yes, they are somewhat idiotic teenagers in lust: but the sweeping passion of adolescence, with all its power and impatience, is something worth looking at in itself.

Because now, I love it. View all 11 comments. Sep 07, Ian "Marvin" Graye rated it it was amazing Shelves: reviewsstars , reviews , read BRUCE: The midnight gang's assembled And picked a rendezvous for the night Man there's an opera on the turnpike There's a ballet being fought in the alley PRINCE: Three civil brawls, bred of an airy word, By thee, old Capulet, and Montague, Have thrice disturb'd the quiet of our streets, And made Verona's ancient citizens Cast by their grave beseeming ornaments, To wield old partisans, in hands as old, Canker'd with peace, to part your canker'd hate.

Once more, on pain of death, all men depart. Enter Romeo, still love-sick for Rosaline. BRUCE: In the day we sweat it out on the streets of a runaway Italian dream At night we ride through the mansions of glory in suicide machines Romeo, still pining for Rosaline, discovers Juliet and becomes newly infatuated.

BRUCE: Together we could break this trap We'll run till we drop, baby we'll never go back Romeo pleads even harder, now he has learned about his rival, Bruce.

Too early seen unknown, and known too late! Juliet falls for Romeo regardless. That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet.

Juliet decides she must confront Bruce and tell him they are not meant to be. JULIET: Bruce, the angels have lost their desire for us I spoke to them just last night and they said they won't set themselves on fire for us anymore Bruce persists, trying to hold onto the memory of their love.

Bruce gives her a small glass bottle of non-prescription drugs. Blue tablets. Juliet takes three tablets immediately.

Romeo looks dashing in his open-necked shirt and film director scarf. Juliet has never seen anything like him.

The love between Romeo and Juliet grows in leaps and bounds. Juliet feels no relief for her headache. She opens the bottle and takes another two tablets.

Tybalt chases them on a motor bike. He crosses suddenly into Romeo's path and clips the front edge of the car. He loses control of his bike and falls to the thundering road.

Romeo can't avoid running over the top of Tybalt and killing him. Still, Romeo rolls his car three times while taking evasive action, and both Romeo and Juliet are knocked unconscious when their heads hit the side door panels.

She realises that her headache has now become extreme. If she can treat her pain, she can try to help Romeo. She touches her forehead where it hit the inside of the car door and pulls her hand away, covered in blood that still seems to be flowing profusely.

Tears form in her eyes and her eyesight becomes blurry. She reaches into her purse and takes another four tablets, in the hope that it will kill her pain.

She lapses into unconsciousness. Shortly afterwards, Romeo awakes and finds Juliet still beside him. There is blood everywhere and a white froth has descended from her lips and dried on her chin.

Death, that hath suck'd the honey of thy breath, Hath had no power yet upon thy beauty: Thou art not conquer'd; beauty's ensign yet Is crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeks, And death's pale flag is not advanced there.

Romeo wipes the froth from her lips and gives her one last kiss. He lifts the left leg of his trousers and pulls out his knife. Eyes, look your last!

Arms, take your last embrace! Come, bitter conduct, come, unsavoury guide! Thou desperate pilot, now at once run on The dashing rocks thy sea-sick weary bark!

Here's to my love! Romeo drags the knife across his throat. He drops the knife and holds his hand to the artery in his neck. He continues to feel the slow, regular pumping of his heart, until it pumps no more.

Now, Juliet wakes again. Still groggy, she looks over to Romeo. Convinced by the abundance of blood that he has died, she shakes the rest of the tablets in the bottle into her hand and swallows them eagerly.

Thy drugs are quick. Thus with a kiss I die. She kisses Romeo and dies. Bruce lives alone and works his day job, almost like an automaton.

His only salvation is the time he spends in his beat up old Buick. Every night, he drives the streets of Verona, haunted by the love he felt for Juliet and the guilt that it was the pills he gave her that took her life.

Sometimes, through the tears in his eyes, he imagines that he sees her walking down the street, only to lose sight of her as she slips quietly down an alleyway.

BRUCE: You're still in love with all the wonder she brings And every muscle in your body sings as the highway ignites You work nine to five and somehow you survive till the night Hell all day they're busting you up on the outside But tonight you're gonna break on through to the inside And it'll be right, it'll be right, and it'll be tonight And you know she will be waiting there And you'll find her somehow you swear Somewhere tonight you run sad and free Until all you can see is the night.

How can I possibly argue that your lyrics deserve to be on the same page as Shakespeare, unless I shamelessly misappropriate them in the pursuit of parody, pastiche, spoof, send-up or lampoon?

This isn't damning with faint praise. This is no piss-take. This is a full-on homage, a big hurrah, a laud almighty. I say, more kudos to the Boss!

As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts it as quoted by my WikiLawyer , "parody I don't need any more, until you release 50th anniversary editions with bonus disks I don't already have.

Please get your lawyers to spare my humble upload. And if they do come looking for me, they'd better be pretty damned fit, coz tramps like us, baby we were born to run.

Jul 21, Angela rated it really liked it. Okay so I just watched the "new" Romeo and Juliet movie the one with Douglas Booth and Hailee Steinfeld and thought " you know what I could really use a re-read of this ".

Ha such a good idea; one of my best. First off all I could think about the whole time I was reading it was Douglas Booth staring at me like this while he told me I smelled like roses and was the sun View all 4 comments.

Jun 05, Michelle rated it it was ok. Popsugar challenge - A book with a pink cover I've managed to live almost four decades without reading or watching this classic and I was pretty excited to get going.

On paper this is my ideal story, boy meets girl, girl already has boy. In reality this wasnt my ideal at all, the play format is really not my jam and the theres only so much of 'yee art thou donkey' language that I can take.

Basically I didnt bond with anything except the bottle of poison. This piece of literature is often as Popsugar challenge - A book with a pink cover I've managed to live almost four decades without reading or watching this classic and I was pretty excited to get going.

This piece of literature is often associated with romanticizing suicide so from that standpoint it was an interesting read for me.

And did I find it romantic? Tragic, most definitely yes. I'm sorry Shakespeare, maybe I'd do better with a more modern translation.

Who am I kidding, I'll watch the film! View all 22 comments. So many witty lines and people being too dramatic, I loved it.

Jan 27, Piyangie rated it it was amazing Shelves: favorite-classic , my-library , brittish-lit , plays.

My first reaction when the read was over is why on earth it took me so long to read this beautiful work of Shakespeare having it physically with me all this while.

Perhaps, I thought I didn't really need to read it since I know the story from the movie adaptations I have watched.

How foolish! I had no idea what I had missed for so long. I have never enjoyed Shakespearean writing as much as I did in this play.

It is passionate, lyrical, and humorous. It is amazing that you find all these in a tra My first reaction when the read was over is why on earth it took me so long to read this beautiful work of Shakespeare having it physically with me all this while.

It is amazing that you find all these in a tragedy; only a great master can accomplish that feat. The story is both romantic and tragic, as we well know.

But what is incredible is that the play is a "beautiful" tragedy. This is one of the most outstanding plays that I have read.

I loved it. I haven't read many Shakespearean tragedies, only other being King Lear. And in my mind, no tragedy will outmatch the tragic tale of Romeo and Juliet.

It certainly will be my favourite Shakespearean tragedy. What I thought about this book in middle school: I don't get it. What I thought about this book in high school: This is stupid.

What I thought about this book in college: Okay, so two kids meet once, "fall in love", and then commit suicide over each other in just four days?

What I thought about this book after finishing it today, aged Wow. Shakespeare is a GD genius. What I didn't realize until today, after reading it a few times and watching several movie adaptations, is tha What I thought about this book in middle school: I don't get it.

What I didn't realize until today, after reading it a few times and watching several movie adaptations, is that this story isn't about young, stupid love at all.

First of all, these characters are people I know. Romeo is my friend Mike, Juliet is my friend Jess, the nurse is my mom telling her embarrassing stories all the time, and Mercutio is my friend Chris.

Chris "that's what she said" Chris. Yes, love is in there. But what I saw when reading it again this time is that everyone has their own ideas of what love is.

Romeo and Juliet are in passionate, crazy, how-you-feel-about-someone-the-first-few-weeks-of-a-relationship love. The nurse has a more practical idea of love.

Juliet's mom thinks love is based on what you can get from someone. Juliet's father thinks love is being obedient.

Mercutio thinks love is only a means to a sexual end. Paris thinks love is something you can earn or demand from someone.

But much more than love, this story is about life. It is about the people in our lives, how we deal with them, how they each have their own agenda without knowing or even caring about anyone else's agenda, how life fucks around with us and knocks us down, and how your destiny will hunt you and get what it wants from you no matter how you try to avoid it.

Romeo describes Juliet as the sun, and Juliet describes Romeo as stars. They see each other as sources of light.

But they must sneak around to see each other, and can therefore only meet up at night when it is dark.

In order for them to see each other's light, there must be some darkness. Damn it, Shakespeare. The bottom line is that Romeo and Juliet is now my second favorite Shakespeare play, just behind Hamlet.

The balcony scene alone is worth the time it takes to read the entire book. Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon who is already sick and pale with grief that thou, her maid, at far more fair than she.

View all 9 comments. Jan 12, Evelyn devours and digests words rated it really liked it Shelves: romance-fail , a-touch-of-satire , favourites , bagful-of-laughs , characters-i-would-like-to-kick , classics.

If anything, this felt like an intentional mockery to me. So if anyone thinks this is categorized as Romance, I will stare at them like they've lost their heads.

The man laughed in the face of insta-love lust , and I laughed along with him. If he was here, I'd offer him a high five because hey, some of his mockery is true.

Many teens I'm not saying all tend to confuse lust and admiration for love. We also shoot our mouths like bullets at the adults who are supposed to 'know better'.

I may or may not be one of those teens. I've read Hamlet, Macbeth, and Julius Caesar where characters there are smart in their actions. I've read The Tempest where the relationship between Miranda and Ferdinand took a slow, budding pace so why the sudden proclaimations of love and wedding vows here?

It does not adds up. Unless of course, you see this in a satirical point of view. Besides, Shakespeare always struck me as someone who explores in the deep meaning of love.

Love is not a subject he took lightly. This I assumed also by judging from what many people say about his sonnets.

I didn't feel the air of tragic when Shakespeare killed off the characters here; poison down Romeo's throat, sword in Juliet's gut. It felt like Shakespeare himself was laughing his ass off.

Lookit these stupid teenagers. Lookit how blindly they throw themselves into relationships! So bugger with the insta-lust. It's laughable, unrealistic even, but I've had the time of my life reading this play.

If Shakespeare indeed meant this to be a satire, he did a great job. Who does not know the story of Romeo and Juliet? And these immortal lines, "O Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?

It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. Parting is such sweet sorrow, That I shall say good night till it be morrow. It has been adapted numerous times for stage, film, musical, opera and radio; the latest film went on general release just a few months ago in However, Shakespeare did not invent the story of Romeo and Juliet.

The tradition of tragic romances had been well established in literature - in particular Italian literature - for almost a hundred years, but what may be surprising is that many of the plot elements of Romeo and Juliet were all in Brooks' poem.

The first meeting of the lovers at the ball, their secret marriage, Romeo's fight with Tybalt, the sleeping potion, and even the timing of their eventual suicides, are all episodes which we usually attribute to Shakespeare.

This is characteristic of the author, who often wrote plays based on earlier works. Shakespeare's text is believed to have been written between and , and as such was one of his earliest performed plays, although not published until later.

It was an immediate success; so popular that Shakespeare continued to rework and hone the notes from the play's performances. It was then first published in , with later editions improving on it still further.

It was among Shakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetime, and has remained so, now being the most performed of all his plays alongside "Hamlet.

It starts with a short prologue, in sonnet form, which tells the audience what is to follow. Nobody can be in any doubt that the story is a tragedy about young love, and that it will take their deaths to bring an end to family feuds.

We are then straight into the action, which is a masterly piece of writing, full of bawdy references to ensure his audiences' attention, while providing all the background information needed to understand the world of the play.

We are immediately told about the long-standing hatred between the two feuding families, the Capulets and the Montagues, and then immediately find ourselves engaged by an exciting brawl.

Shakespeare cleverly establishes some of the major themes of the play, right at its start. He also portrays all of the layers of Veronese society starting with the servants, right through to Prince Escalus.

Many of the secondary characters important to the play are also introduced here; for instance, Romeo's friend, Benvolio, thoughtful, pragmatic and fearful of the law, and Juliet's cousin Tybalt, a hothead, professing a hatred for peace as strong as his hatred for Montagues.

A modern audience becomes aware that in the Verona of this play, masculine honour is not restricted to indifference to pain or insult. Tybalt makes it plain that a man must defend his honour at all times, whether the insult is verbal or physical.

Mercutio is established as another friend; one who who can poke friendly fun at Romeo quite mercilessly. Benvolio is not nearly so quick-witted.

Mercutio is confident, constantly joking, making puns and laughing. He is a passionate man, but his passions are different from Romeo's love and Tybalt's hate.

Their passions are founded respectively upon two ideals of society - love and honour - but Mercutio believes in neither. He comes across as the character with the clearest vision.

Just as Mercutio can see through words to other meanings, he can also see through the ideals held by those around him. He understands that often they are not sincerely held, but merely adopted for convenience.

The characters in this play are multi-layered and complex, and Shakespeare is adept in revealing their subtleties by means of the action. Even as Mercutio dies, he utters his wild witticisms, cursing both the Montagues and the Capulets, "A plague o' both your houses!

They have made worms' meat of me! At first he is melancholy, distracted and lovelorn, as we expect. But surprisingly he is not lovesick over Juliet, but is in love with Rosaline.

This love seems to stem almost entirely from the reading of bad love poetry! We understand from this that Romeo's love for Rosaline is an immature love, more a statement that he is ready to be in love than actual love.

Perhaps Rosaline, who never appears in the play, exists only to demonstrate Romeo's passionate nature, his love of being in love. We meet Juliet in scene 3, and learn that in the Verona of this play, her status as a young woman leaves her with no power or choice in any social situation.

Juliet at 13 years old is completely subject to parental influence, and is being encouraged to marry her parent's choice of Paris. Lady Capulet observes wryly that that she had already given birth to Juliet herself when she was Juliet's current age, before she was In this way the forces that determine the fate of Romeo and Juliet are laid in place well before they even meet.

Parental influence in the tragedy becomes a tool of fate. Juliet's arranged marriage with Paris, and the longstanding feud between Capulets and Montagues, will eventually contribute to the deaths of Romeo and Juliet.

The reader enjoys the tension, and knowledge that terrible events are about to happen. Events and observations continually reinforce the presence and power of fate.

Juliet's speeches have many different facets, and are capable of many interpretations. She often professes one thing, whilst we know she has an ulterior motive, and another intention.

This is particularly evident when she is speaking to her parents, knowing that she intends to make her own decisions, she perversely wants to speak her mind, but deliberately couches her words in double meanings so that the truth will remain hidden.

Juliet is a strong character in the play, particularly fascinating to a modern reader as she seems almost contemporary. She repeatedly goes against what is expected of women of her time and place, and takes action.

The best example of this is when she drinks the sleeping potion. She comes up with many reasons why it might cause her harm, and recognises that drinking the potion might lead her to madness or even death.

Yet she chooses to drink it anyway. This demonstrates a willingness to take her life into her own hands - and also hints at future events.

There is never just one side to, or interpretation of, any event in this play. It is a portent. Juliet drinks the potion just as Romeo will later drink the apothecary's poison.

Another instance of ominous foreshadowing is when the Nurse teases Juliet by saying that she is too tired to tell her what happened when she first met Romeo.

This delay in telling Juliet the news is mirrored in a future scene, when the Nurse's anguish prevents her from relating news to Juliet and thereby causing terrible confusion.

Another example of delicious dramatic irony is when Romeo is proclaiming his love to be the most powerful force in the world. Friar Laurence advises caution, saying, "These violent delights have violent ends And in their triump die, like fire and powder Which, as they kiss, consume".

The reader knows that the play is a tragedy, and that Romeo and Juliet will die. Shakespeare ingeniously manipulates the plot, so that we feel the impending doom, and are swept up in the inevitability of it all.

Even the characters themselves are sometimes aware that they are pawns. Romeo cries, "O, I am fortune's fool! He knows that by killing his new wife's cousin, he will be banished from Verona, and feels the inevitability of the situation.

This emphasises the sense of fate - or fortune - that hangs over the play. Juliet also indicates in her speeches the power of fate and predestination.

In her final scene with Romeo, the last moment they spend alive together, she says that he appears pale, as if he were dead. She looks out of her window and cries, "O God, I have an ill-divining soul!

Methinks I see thee, now thou art so low, As one dead in the bottom of a tomb. The next time she sees Romeo, he will be dead. Friar Laurence is a pivotal character in the play.

When we first see him he is collecting herbs and flowers for medicinal purposes, demonstrating a deep knowledge of the properties of the plants he collects, and alerting the reader to what may be to come.

He meditates on the duality of good and evil that exists in all things; another clearly portentous speech. Referring to the plants, Friar Laurence says that, although everything in nature has a useful purpose, it can also lead to misfortune if used improperly, "For naught so vile that on the earth doth live But to the earth some special good doth give, Nor aught so good but strain'd from that fair use Revolts from true birth, stumbling on abuse: Virtue itself turns vice, being misapplied; And vice sometime's by action dignified".

Friar Laurence ruminates on how good may be perverted to evil and evil may be purified by good. By making plans to marry Romeo and Juliet, he hopes that the good of their love will reverse the evil of the hatred between the feuding families.

Shakespeare portrays him as a benign, wise philosopher. But his schemes also serve as tools of fate; secretly marrying the two lovers, sending Romeo to Mantua, and staging Juliet's apparent death.

The tragic failure of his plans are outside his responsibility, and due to chance. The structure of the play is carefully controlled; it would be interesting at this distance to read the earlier versions.

Different poetic forms are used by different characters, and sometimes the form changes as the character develops.

There are many instances of the sonnet, as the reader would expect, because it is a perfect, idealised poetic form often used to write about love.

The play starts with a Prologue in sonnet form, a masterly precis of the story. Romeo himself, develops his expertise in the sonnet over the course of the play.

When Romeo and Juliet meet they speak just fourteen lines before their first kiss. These fourteen lines make up a shared sonnet, which creates a link between their love and their tragic destiny, as told in the introductory prologue.

There are numerous instances of such tightly written formal structure, which is remarkable in such an early play. Even the dramatic action of the play has a tight schedule, spanning just 4 days.

Perhaps this is why many of the most important scenes, such as the balcony scene, take place either very late at night or very early in the morning.

Shakespeare makes great use of effects such as switching between comedy and tragedy to heighten the tension, and bringing minor characters into the foreground to increase depth and interest.

His additional use of sub-plots to enrich the story, is often cited as an early sign of his dramatic skill.

This play has everything; love, beauty, and romance, but also sudden, fatal violence early on. Viciousness and danger are continually present, yet just at the point when they threaten to overcome the reader, the action will be tempered by wit, comedy and humour.

We are in a masculine world in which notions of honour, pride, and status are prone to erupt in a fury of conflict, but there is a strong female who defies her confined expectations.

Rashness, vengeance, passion, grief; they are all here. The motif of fate continues to the very end of the play.

Romeo proclaims, "Then I defy you, stars" and "I will lie with thee tonight" in a last desperate attempt to control his own destiny by spending eternity with Juliet.

Yet in this ultimate example of tragic irony, this defiant act seals both his fate, and their double suicide. Shakespeare tells his audience that nothing can withstand the power of fate.

The neat twists of the ending are supremely ironic, devastating and heart-wrenching. Here is Romeo, in despair, "O true apothecary!

O happy dagger! This is thy sheath There rust and let me die! Of course in one sense this is true of any play; the live action is how the play was intended to be experienced.

But there is a lot to be said for reading Shakespeare on the page. The structure and poetry of the language is so much more evident.

The puns and in-jokes are so much clearer. The reader can give pause to properly interpret the manifold meanings of both the exciting events and the rousing speeches.

And above all we can marvel at the mastery of a writer who can still speak to us with relevance, move us with poetry and story, and entertain his audience well over years later.

View all 24 comments. Those who rush stumble and fall. It was the first Shakespeare many of us were introduced to. It seems like family.

He has mastered not just drama, but tamed English. He has broken poetry to his will. He re-oriented the stars of what language can do.

Like the Bible, certain texts seem to change as one ages. Today, I've been consumed by the language, the symmetry, the fatalism of this play.

When I was young, I found it romantic. Now that I'm a father myself to a teenage girl, I find it holds truth about fathers too.

I was lucky that my 3x12 reading of Shakespeare 3 plays per month of his first folio landed me in April reading Romeo and Juliet.

My daughter, a freshman, is obsessed with the play. She borrowed mine, but needing mine, I bought her another copy. There might be three sad Romeos, three grieving Juliets hiding in our house.

It is a delight as a father who reads, to find my year-old daughter on her bed reading Juliet's part for an English class. Perhaps, all is not lost in these Twitter-filled times.

Jan 26, David Schaafsma rated it it was amazing Shelves: plays , shakespeare. This is great literature! But seriously what a great play, so much fine writing and with that sex and violence appeal to the young in it.

They loved it, though the highlight of the first half viewing was the year-old saying "Love?! Didn't they just meet like five minutes ago?!

In this mod and wild and controversial film version, the Montague-Capulet feud, once adapted by Leonard Bernstein for his West Story family feud, gets highlighted as contemporary Italian street violence complete with contemporary music, switchblades and fast cars , and the romance is as it ever was, fast and furious and fated.

So is it a great play? I don't know. I would rank the four tragedies, and Midsummer Night's Dream and oh so many others above this play, but it does best what few of his plays do; it captures youthful passion.

Luhrmann even has the moody, love-sick Romeo write passages like this in his journal as he sits by the sea. Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, Who is already sick and pale with grief, That thou, her maid, art far more fair than she.

Be not her maid, since she is envious; Her vestal livery is but sick and green And none but fools do wear it; cast it off.

It is my lady, O, it is my love! Oh, that she knew she were! Here's the balcony scene, you are welcome! Jul 31, Lyn rated it liked it.

Deny thy father refuse thy name, thou art thyself thou not a Montegue, what is Montegue? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet, So Romeo would were he not Romeo called retain such dear perfection to which he owes without that title, Romeo, Doth thy name!

And for that name which is no part of thee, take all thyself. Believed to have been written in the early s, this has remained a fan favorite for romantic drama.

The idea of a lasting feud between families, though, is likely timeless. I'd like to see this in a film directed by Quentin Tarantino.

View all 5 comments. The First Folio text of was based primarily on Q3, with clarifications and corrections possibly coming from a theatrical prompt book or Q1.

Pope began a tradition of editing the play to add information such as stage directions missing in Q2 by locating them in Q1. This tradition continued late into the Romantic period.

Fully annotated editions first appeared in the Victorian period and continue to be produced today, printing the text of the play with footnotes describing the sources and culture behind the play.

Scholars have found it extremely difficult to assign one specific, overarching theme to the play. Proposals for a main theme include a discovery by the characters that human beings are neither wholly good nor wholly evil, but instead are more or less alike, [37] awaking out of a dream and into reality, the danger of hasty action, or the power of tragic fate.

None of these have widespread support. However, even if an overall theme cannot be found it is clear that the play is full of several small, thematic elements that intertwine in complex ways.

Several of those most often debated by scholars are discussed below. Juliet Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, Which mannerly devotion shows in this; For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss.

Romeo and Juliet is sometimes considered to have no unifying theme, save that of young love. Since it is such an obvious subject of the play, several scholars have explored the language and historical context behind the romance of the play.

On their first meeting, Romeo and Juliet use a form of communication recommended by many etiquette authors in Shakespeare's day: metaphor.

By using metaphors of saints and sins, Romeo was able to test Juliet's feelings for him in a non-threatening way.

This method was recommended by Baldassare Castiglione whose works had been translated into English by this time. He pointed out that if a man used a metaphor as an invitation, the woman could pretend she did not understand him, and he could retreat without losing honour.

Juliet, however, participates in the metaphor and expands on it. The religious metaphors of "shrine", "pilgrim", and "saint" were fashionable in the poetry of the time and more likely to be understood as romantic rather than blasphemous, as the concept of sainthood was associated with the Catholicism of an earlier age.

In the later balcony scene, Shakespeare has Romeo overhear Juliet's soliloquy, but in Brooke's version of the story, her declaration is done alone.

By bringing Romeo into the scene to eavesdrop, Shakespeare breaks from the normal sequence of courtship. Usually, a woman was required to be modest and shy to make sure that her suitor was sincere, but breaking this rule serves to speed along the plot.

The lovers are able to skip courting and move on to plain talk about their relationship—agreeing to be married after knowing each other for only one night.

Romeo and Juliet's love seems to be expressing the "Religion of Love" view rather than the Catholic view. Another point is that, although their love is passionate, it is only consummated in marriage, which keeps them from losing the audience's sympathy.

The play arguably equates love and sex with death. Throughout the story, both Romeo and Juliet, along with the other characters, fantasise about it as a dark being , often equating it with a lover.

Capulet, for example, when he first discovers Juliet's faked death, describes it as having deflowered his daughter. Right before her suicide, she grabs Romeo's dagger, saying "O happy dagger!

This is thy sheath. There rust, and let me die. Scholars are divided on the role of fate in the play. No consensus exists on whether the characters are truly fated to die together or whether the events take place by a series of unlucky chances.

Arguments in favour of fate often refer to the description of the lovers as " star-cross'd ". This phrase seems to hint that the stars have predetermined the lovers' future.

Draper points out the parallels between the Elizabethan belief in the four humours and the main characters of the play for example, Tybalt as a choleric.

Interpreting the text in the light of humours reduces the amount of plot attributed to chance by modern audiences. For example, Romeo's challenging Tybalt is not impulsive; it is, after Mercutio's death, the expected action to take.

In this scene, Nevo reads Romeo as being aware of the dangers of flouting social norms , identity, and commitments. He makes the choice to kill, not because of a tragic flaw , but because of circumstance.

O heavy lightness, serious vanity, Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms, Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health, Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is!

Scholars have long noted Shakespeare's widespread use of light and dark imagery throughout the play.

Caroline Spurgeon considers the theme of light as "symbolic of the natural beauty of young love" and later critics have expanded on this interpretation.

Romeo describes Juliet as being like the sun, [53] brighter than a torch, [54] a jewel sparkling in the night, [55] and a bright angel among dark clouds.

For example, Romeo and Juliet's love is a light in the midst of the darkness of the hate around them, but all of their activity together is done in night and darkness while all of the feuding is done in broad daylight.

This paradox of imagery adds atmosphere to the moral dilemma facing the two lovers: loyalty to family or loyalty to love.

At the end of the story, when the morning is gloomy and the sun hiding its face for sorrow, light and dark have returned to their proper places, the outward darkness reflecting the true, inner darkness of the family feud out of sorrow for the lovers.

All characters now recognise their folly in light of recent events, and things return to the natural order, thanks to the love and death of Romeo and Juliet.

Time plays an important role in the language and plot of the play. Both Romeo and Juliet struggle to maintain an imaginary world void of time in the face of the harsh realities that surround them.

Stars were thought to control the fates of humanity, and as time passed, stars would move along their course in the sky, also charting the course of human lives below.

Romeo speaks of a foreboding he feels in the stars' movements early in the play, and when he learns of Juliet's death, he defies the stars' course for him.

Another central theme is haste: Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet spans a period of four to six days, in contrast to Brooke's poem's spanning nine months.

Thomas Tanselle believe that time was "especially important to Shakespeare" in this play, as he used references to "short-time" for the young lovers as opposed to references to "long-time" for the "older generation" to highlight "a headlong rush towards doom".

In the end, the only way they seem to defeat time is through a death that makes them immortal through art.

Time is also connected to the theme of light and dark. In Shakespeare's day, plays were most often performed at noon or in the afternoon in broad daylight.

Shakespeare uses references to the night and day, the stars, the moon, and the sun to create this illusion. He also has characters frequently refer to days of the week and specific hours to help the audience understand that time has passed in the story.

All in all, no fewer than references to time are found in the play, adding to the illusion of its passage. The earliest known critic of the play was diarist Samuel Pepys , who wrote in "it is a play of itself the worst that I ever heard in my life.

Publisher Nicholas Rowe was the first critic to ponder the theme of the play, which he saw as the just punishment of the two feuding families.

In mid-century, writer Charles Gildon and philosopher Lord Kames argued that the play was a failure in that it did not follow the classical rules of drama: the tragedy must occur because of some character flaw , not an accident of fate.

Writer and critic Samuel Johnson , however, considered it one of Shakespeare's "most pleasing" plays. In the later part of the 18th and through the 19th century, criticism centred on debates over the moral message of the play.

Actor and playwright David Garrick 's adaptation excluded Rosaline: Romeo abandoning her for Juliet was seen as fickle and reckless.

Critics such as Charles Dibdin argued that Rosaline had been included in the play in order to show how reckless the hero was and that this was the reason for his tragic end.

Others argued that Friar Laurence might be Shakespeare's spokesman in his warnings against undue haste.

With the advent of the 20th century, these moral arguments were disputed by critics such as Richard Green Moulton : he argued that accident, and not some character flaw, led to the lovers' deaths.

In Romeo and Juliet , Shakespeare employs several dramatic techniques that have garnered praise from critics, most notably the abrupt shifts from comedy to tragedy an example is the punning exchange between Benvolio and Mercutio just before Tybalt arrives.

When Romeo is banished, rather than executed, and Friar Laurence offers Juliet a plan to reunite her with Romeo, the audience can still hope that all will end well.

They are in a "breathless state of suspense" by the opening of the last scene in the tomb: If Romeo is delayed long enough for the Friar to arrive, he and Juliet may yet be saved.

Shakespeare also uses sub-plots to offer a clearer view of the actions of the main characters. For example, when the play begins, Romeo is in love with Rosaline, who has refused all of his advances.

Romeo's infatuation with her stands in obvious contrast to his later love for Juliet. This provides a comparison through which the audience can see the seriousness of Romeo and Juliet's love and marriage.

Paris' love for Juliet also sets up a contrast between Juliet's feelings for him and her feelings for Romeo.

The formal language she uses around Paris, as well as the way she talks about him to her Nurse, show that her feelings clearly lie with Romeo. Beyond this, the sub-plot of the Montague—Capulet feud overarches the whole play, providing an atmosphere of hate that is the main contributor to the play's tragic end.

Shakespeare uses a variety of poetic forms throughout the play. He begins with a line prologue in the form of a Shakespearean sonnet , spoken by a Chorus.

Most of Romeo and Juliet is, however, written in blank verse , and much of it in strict iambic pentameter , with less rhythmic variation than in most of Shakespeare's later plays.

Friar Laurence, for example, uses sermon and sententiae forms and the Nurse uses a unique blank verse form that closely matches colloquial speech.

For example, when Romeo talks about Rosaline earlier in the play, he attempts to use the Petrarchan sonnet form.

Petrarchan sonnets were often used by men to exaggerate the beauty of women who were impossible for them to attain, as in Romeo's situation with Rosaline.

Early psychoanalytic critics saw the problem of Romeo and Juliet in terms of Romeo's impulsiveness, deriving from "ill-controlled, partially disguised aggression", [85] which leads both to Mercutio's death and to the double suicide.

That hatred manifests itself directly in the lovers' language: Juliet, for example, speaks of "my only love sprung from my only hate" [90] and often expresses her passion through an anticipation of Romeo's death.

Feminist literary critics argue that the blame for the family feud lies in Verona's patriarchal society. When Tybalt kills Mercutio, Romeo shifts into this violent mode, regretting that Juliet has made him so "effeminate".

The feud is also linked to male virility, as the numerous jokes about maidenheads aptly demonstrate. Other critics, such as Dympna Callaghan, look at the play's feminism from a historicist angle, stressing that when the play was written the feudal order was being challenged by increasingly centralised government and the advent of capitalism.

At the same time, emerging Puritan ideas about marriage were less concerned with the "evils of female sexuality" than those of earlier eras and more sympathetic towards love-matches: when Juliet dodges her father's attempt to force her to marry a man she has no feeling for, she is challenging the patriarchal order in a way that would not have been possible at an earlier time.

A number of critics have found the character of Mercutio to have unacknowledged homoerotic desire for Romeo.

As Benvolio argues, she is best replaced by someone who will reciprocate. Shakespeare's procreation sonnets describe another young man who, like Romeo, is having trouble creating offspring and who may be seen as being a homosexual.

Goldberg believes that Shakespeare may have used Rosaline as a way to express homosexual problems of procreation in an acceptable way.

In this view, when Juliet says " The balcony scene was introduced by Da Porto in He had Romeo walk frequently by her house, "sometimes climbing to her chamber window", and wrote, "It happened one night, as love ordained, when the moon shone unusually bright, that whilst Romeo was climbing the balcony, the young lady A few decades later, Bandello greatly expanded this scene, diverging from the familiar one: Julia has her nurse deliver a letter asking Romeo to come to her window with a rope ladder, and he climbs the balcony with the help of his servant, Julia and the nurse the servants discreetly withdraw after this.

Nevertheless, in October , Lois Leveen speculated in The Atlantic that the original Shakespeare play did not contain a balcony. Leveen suggested that during the 18th century, David Garrick chose to use a balcony in his adaptation and revival of Romeo and Juliet and modern adaptations have continued this tradition.

Romeo and Juliet ranks with Hamlet as one of Shakespeare's most performed plays. Its many adaptations have made it one of his most enduring and famous stories.

Scholar Gary Taylor measures it as the sixth most popular of Shakespeare's plays, in the period after the death of Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Kyd but before the ascendancy of Ben Jonson during which Shakespeare was London's dominant playwright.

The First Quarto, printed in , reads "it hath been often and with great applause plaid publiquely", setting the first performance before that date.

The Lord Chamberlain's Men were certainly the first to perform it. Besides their strong connections with Shakespeare, the Second Quarto actually names one of its actors, Will Kemp , instead of Peter, in a line in Act V.

Richard Burbage was probably the first Romeo, being the company's actor; and Master Robert Goffe a boy , the first Juliet. All theatres were closed down by the puritan government on 6 September Upon the restoration of the monarchy in , two patent companies the King's Company and the Duke's Company were established, and the existing theatrical repertoire was divided between them.

This was a tragicomedy by James Howard, in which the two lovers survive. Otway's version was a hit, and was acted for the next seventy years.

For example, Garrick's version transferred all language describing Rosaline to Juliet, to heighten the idea of faithfulness and downplay the love-at-first-sight theme.

The earliest known production in North America was an amateur one: on 23 March , a physician named Joachimus Bertrand placed an advertisement in the Gazette newspaper in New York, promoting a production in which he would play the apothecary.

Garrick's altered version of the play was very popular, and ran for nearly a century. Her portrayal of Romeo was considered genius by many.

The Times wrote: "For a long time Romeo has been a convention. Miss Cushman's Romeo is a creative, a living, breathing, animated, ardent human being.

Professional performances of Shakespeare in the midth century had two particular features: firstly, they were generally star vehicles , with supporting roles cut or marginalised to give greater prominence to the central characters.

Secondly, they were "pictorial", placing the action on spectacular and elaborate sets requiring lengthy pauses for scene changes and with the frequent use of tableaux.

Forbes-Robertson avoided the showiness of Irving and instead portrayed a down-to-earth Romeo, expressing the poetic dialogue as realistic prose and avoiding melodramatic flourish.

American actors began to rival their British counterparts. The first professional performance of the play in Japan may have been George Crichton Miln's company's production, which toured to Yokohama in In the 20th century it would become the second most popular, behind Hamlet.

In , the play was revived by actress Katharine Cornell and her director husband Guthrie McClintic and was taken on a seven-month nationwide tour throughout the United States.

The production was a modest success, and so upon the return to New York, Cornell and McClintic revised it, and for the first time the play was presented with almost all the scenes intact, including the Prologue.

The new production opened on Broadway in December Critics wrote that Cornell was "the greatest Juliet of her time", "endlessly haunting", and "the most lovely and enchanting Juliet our present-day theatre has seen".

His efforts were a huge success at the box office, and set the stage for increased historical realism in later productions. I've always felt that John missed the lower half and that made me go for the other But whatever it was, when I was playing Romeo I was carrying a torch, I was trying to sell realism in Shakespeare.

Peter Brook 's version was the beginning of a different style of Romeo and Juliet performances. Brook was less concerned with realism, and more concerned with translating the play into a form that could communicate with the modern world.

He argued, "A production is only correct at the moment of its correctness, and only good at the moment of its success. Throughout the century, audiences, influenced by the cinema, became less willing to accept actors distinctly older than the teenage characters they were playing.

In an interview with The Times , he stated that the play's "twin themes of love and the total breakdown of understanding between two generations" had contemporary relevance.

Recent performances often set the play in the contemporary world. For example, in , the Royal Shakespeare Company set the play in modern Verona. Switchblades replaced swords, feasts and balls became drug-laden rock parties, and Romeo committed suicide by hypodermic needle.

Neil Bartlett's production of Romeo and Juliet themed the play very contemporary with a cinematic look which started its life at the Lyric Hammersmith, London then went to West Yorkshire Playhouse for an exclusive run in Romeo sneaks into the Capulet barbecue to meet Juliet, and Juliet discovers Tybalt's death while in class at school.

The play is sometimes given a historical setting, enabling audiences to reflect on the underlying conflicts. For example, adaptations have been set in the midst of the Israeli—Palestinian conflict , [] in the apartheid era in South Africa, [] and in the aftermath of the Pueblo Revolt.

In the 19th and 20th century, Romeo and Juliet has often been the choice of Shakespeare plays to open a classical theatre company, beginning with Edwin Booth 's inaugural production of that play in his theatre in , the newly re-formed company of the Old Vic in with John Gielgud , Martita Hunt , and Margaret Webster , [] as well as the Riverside Shakespeare Company in its founding production in New York City in , which used the film of Franco Zeffirelli 's production as its inspiration.

The best-known ballet version is Prokofiev 's Romeo and Juliet. It has subsequently attained an "immense" reputation, and has been choreographed by John Cranko and Kenneth MacMillan among others.

In , Michael Smuin 's production of one of the play's most dramatic and impassioned dance interpretations was debuted in its entirety by San Francisco Ballet.

This production was the first full-length ballet to be broadcast by the PBS series " Great Performances : Dance in America"; it aired in Dada Masilo, a South African dancer and choreographer, reinterpreted Romeo and Juliet in a new modern light.

She introduced changes to the story, notably that of presenting the two families as multiracial. At least 24 operas have been based on Romeo and Juliet.

It is occasionally revived. The play influenced several jazz works, including Peggy Lee 's " Fever ". This version updated the setting to midth-century New York City and the warring families to ethnic gangs.

Romeo and Juliet had a profound influence on subsequent literature. Before then, romance had not even been viewed as a worthy topic for tragedy.

Romeo and Juliet was parodied in Shakespeare's own lifetime: Henry Porter 's Two Angry Women of Abingdon and Thomas Dekker 's Blurt, Master Constable both contain balcony scenes in which a virginal heroine engages in bawdy wordplay.

For example, the preparations for a performance form a major plot arc in Charles Dickens ' Nicholas Nickleby. Romeo and Juliet is one of Shakespeare's most-illustrated works.

Lois Leveen 's novel Juliet's Nurse imagined the fourteen years leading up to the events in the play from the point of view of the nurse.

The nurse has the third largest number of lines in the original play; only the eponymous characters have more lines. The board attracted widespread media criticism and derision after the question appeared to confuse the Capulets and the Montagues, [] [] [] with exams regulator Ofqual describing the error as unacceptable.

Romeo and Juliet may be the most-filmed play of all time. The latter two were both, in their time, the highest-grossing Shakespeare film ever.

Neither critics nor the public responded enthusiastically. Cinema-goers considered the film too "arty", staying away as they had from Warner's A Midsummer Night Dream a year before: leading to Hollywood abandoning the Bard for over a decade.

Stephen Orgel describes Franco Zeffirelli 's Romeo and Juliet as being "full of beautiful young people, and the camera and the lush technicolour make the most of their sexual energy and good looks".

The play has been widely adapted for TV and film. In , Peter Ustinov 's cold-war stage parody, Romanoff and Juliet was filmed.

The film was a commercial and critical success. The production starred Orlando Bloom and Condola Rashad. The production used RSC actors who engaged with the audience as well each other, performing not from a traditional script but a "Grid" developed by the Mudlark production team and writers Tim Wright and Bethan Marlow.

The performers also make use of other media sites such as YouTube for pictures and video. Title page of the Second Quarto of Romeo and Juliet published in All references to Romeo and Juliet , unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare second edition Gibbons, based on the Q2 text of , with elements from Q1 of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet disambiguation. An oil painting by Ford Madox Brown depicting the play's balcony scene.

The opening act of Romeo and Juliet. Main article: Characters in Romeo and Juliet. Count Paris is a kinsman of Escalus who wishes to marry Juliet.

Mercutio is another kinsman of Escalus, a friend of Romeo. House of Capulet Capulet is the patriarch of the house of Capulet. Lady Capulet is the matriarch of the house of Capulet.

Juliet Capulet is the year-old daughter of Capulet, the play's female protagonist. Tybalt is a cousin of Juliet, the nephew of Lady Capulet.

The Nurse is Juliet's personal attendant and confidante. Rosaline is Lord Capulet's niece, Romeo's love in the beginning of the story.

Peter, Sampson, and Gregory are servants of the Capulet household. House of Montague Montague is the patriarch of the house of Montague.

Lady Montague is the matriarch of the house of Montague. Romeo Montague , the son of Montague, is the play's male protagonist. Benvolio is Romeo's cousin and best friend.

Abram and Balthasar are servants of the Montague household. Others Friar Laurence is a Franciscan friar and Romeo's confidant. Friar John is sent to deliver Friar Laurence's letter to Romeo.

An Apothecary who reluctantly sells Romeo poison. A Chorus reads a prologue to each of the first two acts. Main article: Romeo and Juliet on screen.

When performed at Court, inside the stately home of a member of the nobility and in indoor theaters such as the Blackfriars theatre candle lighting was used and plays could be performed even at night.

Menninger's Man Against Himself Retrieved 1 January Archived from the original on 18 June Gibbons, Brian, ed.

Romeo and Juliet. The Arden Shakespeare , second series. London: Thomson Learning. Levenson, Jill L. The Oxford Shakespeare. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Spencer, T. The New Penguin Shakespeare. London: Penguin. Appelbaum, Robert Shakespeare Quarterly. Folger Shakespeare Library. Books in Motion: Adaptation, Adaptability, Authorship.

Margaret Webster: A Life in the Theatre. University of Michigan Press. Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. New York: Riverhead Books.

In Alexander, Margaret M. S; Wells, Stanley eds. Shakespeare and Sexuality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.